Rules of boffering


1. General principles
1.1. Purpose of combat rules

These combat rules are supposed define a commonly accepted way to conduct combat simulation in Sotahuuto event in an organised and safe manner.

1.2. Principles of Sotahuuto event
These rules are followed in combat activity in Sotahuuto event. The rules guarantee the safety of the participants and the equality of the activities. Respectable conduct is expected from both participants and supervisors in all combat activity. The participants must follow instructions given by supervisors.

1.3 Concepts and terms
Combatant is defined in these rules as a person participating in combat activity in Sotahuuto event.
Attacker is defined in these rules as a combatant who performs an attack with a weapon or a weapon combination against a target.
Target is defined in these rules as a combatant who is targeted by an attack performed by an attacker with a weapon or weapon combination.
Dead is defined in these rules as a combatant who has died in a current scenario in a manner described in chapter 2.3.2. Dying and and being dead.
Scenario is defined in these rules as a single period of combat activity uninterrupted by other than safety reasons.
Healer is defined in these rules as a combatant who possesses certified healing bandages at the start of a scenario.
Bystander is defined in these rules as a person in the area of combat activity who is not a combatant or a supervisor.
Supervisor is defined in these rules as a person who has been given power by the main organiser of the Sotahuuto event to direct combat activity.

2. Combat activity
2.1. Hit locations

Combatant is divided in six different hit locations: head, torso, left arm, right arm, left leg and right leg. Hit location head includes neck and head. Hit location torso includes shoulders above biceps and body from the groin and gluteal muscles up to but not including neck. Hit locations left and right arm include the corresponding arm from the shoulder joint to fingers. Hit locations left and right leg include the corresponding leg from below the groin and gluteal muscles down to toes.

2.2. Attacking and hitting
2.2.1. Attack methods

Attack methods include hit, thrust, throw and launch. The weapon used for attacking limits the range of available attack methods. Only the attack methods available for the used weapon may be used. Attack methods available for each type of weapon are defined in chapter 3 Weapons and weapon combinations. Hit and thrust begin with noticeable motion of the melee weapon and end with noticeable returning motion. Hitting the target must happen after the beginning and before the end of this type of attack in the manner described in chapter 2.2.3. Target and hitting. Continued pushing or sawing motion while the weapon remains in contact with the target is regarded as a part of the first hit and will not deal additional damage. A sliding attack may hit multiple hit locations or targets in which case all of them are regarded as being hit.
Throwing and launching include all ranged attacks. Throwing weapons are thrown and different bows and siege engines can launch projectiles. Both types of attacks begin when the projectile leaves the control of the attacker through the force of the launch. Hit is successful when the damaging part of the projectile hits the target. In any type of attack sliding the weapon along solid surfaces or structures is prohibited.

2.2.2. Attacker and performing the attack
Attacker performs the attack in the manner available to their weapon. Attacks performed using one hand can only be done using a single weapon at a time. The attacker is expected to use the appropriate amount of force in the attack taking the situation and target into account. The attacker must use a manner of attack that can be perceived as an attack. The attacker is not expected to comment on whether their attack is a hit or miss. If any clear hits are disregarded by the target the situation can be brought up with them in person in a civil manner after the ongoing scenario. The attacker may also receive warnings for excessive use of force between scenarios. The supervisors may remove a combatant from the event if they have received multiple warnings. Surprising or hard-to-perceive attacks are to be performed with lowered use of force and careful targeting of the attack avoiding easily damaged areas such as kidneys, groin and base of the skull.

2.2.3. Target and hitting
Contact with the damaging part of the weapon received through an accepted attack method in any part of the combatant causes either a wound or death depending on the hit location and previously received hits. Receiving hits and following the rules considering hits is always the responsibility of the target. If necessary, the target may give feedback to the attacker after the scenario for excessive use of force. Knowing disregard of received hits is prohibited for any reason. Not moticing a hit by accident is human. Combatants may be given feedback for disregard of received hits between scenarios. An attack that hits a loose piece of clothing but not the target is not regarded as a hit. An attack that hits a weapon or shield held by the target in some other manner than using their hand is regarded as a hit to the hit location covered by the hit weapon or shield except in situations where the attack clearly would have missed the combatant (for example hits to arrows in a quiver extending over the shoulder of the target).

2.3. Wounds and dying
2.3.1. Wounds

A hit in any limb causes a wound to that limb. A wounded limb may not be used. A wounded arm must be held behind the back and any weapons or shields held in it are not considered to be held in hand. The foot of a wounded leg must not touch the ground and must not carry any weight. A weapon or shield can be transferred from the hand of a wounded arm to the hand of an unwounded arm.

2.3.2. Dying and being dead
A hit to torso or head causes immediate death of the target. A hit to a wounded limb causes immediate death of the target. A wound in both arms or both legs causes immediate death of the target. A wound in one arm and/or one leg does not cause death. A dead combatant cannot participate in combat activity until the supervisors give them permission. Being dead must be expressed in a manner described ahead as long as they are in the area used for combat activity. Being dead is expressed immediately after dying by preferably all of the following methods: 1. Announcing death verbally, 2. Raising and holding one hand over one’s head in a fist or, 3. Pointing the weapon downwards while holding the blade of the weapon on face level.

When the dead combatant is left outside the immediate combat contact, they must express being dead by holding an acceptable signal cloth over their head or wrap it around their head. The signal cloth must be of noticeable size and colored bright orange. A dead combatant must remove themselves into an area designated by supervisors for dead combatants without delay and without disturbing the ongoing combat activity avoiding other non-dead combatants who still participate in combat activity. If leaving the immediate vicinity of the combat activity is impossible or dangerous, the dead combatant must kneel or sit next to a tree, wall or rock while expressing being dead until the situation allows for a safe exit. When a dead combatant encounters non-dead combatants they must readily express being dead. Pretending to be dead is prohibited.

2.3.3. Healers
Healers may be included in scenarios specified by organisers. Healers possess an amount of healing bandages received from the organisers. Healer may only use bandages they have at the beginning of the scenario. A bandage is to be bound around a wounded limb and no loose bandage is to be left hanging from either end. Healer or the combatant being healed may not participate in combat activity during the binding of the bandage. Healer may not heal themselves. When a wounded limb has been bound with a healing bandage it may be used like an uninjured limb but remains wounded. Unbinding the bandage or a hit to the bound limb results in death.

2.4. Defence
2.4.1. Active use of the shield

Shield is a special type of active defensive tool and must be inspected for this purpose. Shield may be used with one or two uninjured hands. While being used in this manner any attacks that hit the shield won’t cause the effects described in chapter 2.3. Wounds and dying unless otherwise specified in the weapon rules. This protective quality of the shield is permanent regardless of the number of hits it receives. A shield held in the hand of an injured arm is considered to be part of the injured arm and a hit to the shield will then lead to death. A combatant may only use one shield. Shield must be held with a hand grasping a handle and the handle must be located on the inner face of the shield. Structure of the shield is described in chapter 4. Defensive tools.

2.4.2. Passive use of armor
Armor protects from one hit as described in chapter 2.2.2. Attacker and performing the attack in each hit location if only armor is hit. Armor won’t affect hits landing on unprotected hit locations. The one-time protective quality of armor lost to a hit is restored only after the death of the combatant. The structure of armor is described in chapter 4. Defensive tools.

2.5. Contact
2.5.1. Contact between combatants

Controlled contact between combatants is allowed. Grappling, throwing, wrestling, hitting wit other than inspected weapons or other form of contact fighting is strictly prohibited. Uncontrolled contact like leaping at a combatant is prohibited.

2.5.2. Weapon contact
Pushing shields or weapons with weapons is allowed. Using the shaft of a weapon for hitting is prohibited. Using weapons to wrestle or trip combatants is prohibited.

2.5.3. Grabbing the opponent’s weapon
Grabbing the weapon of another combatant is allowed if the damaging part is not touched. Breaking weapons is prohibited. After five seconds the attacker must release their grip from the grabbed weapon. If any danger, punching or wrestling ensues, the grip must be released immediately.

2.5.4. Shield contact
Shield can be used for controlled contact and pushing other combatants. Using shield for hitting or violent pushing of combatants is prohibited. Uncontrolled charges and attempts to push other combatants to the ground are prohibited. A shield-user may be given warnings of excessive use of force between scenarios. Supervisors may remove a combatant from the event after multiple warnings. Grabbing a shield of another combatant is prohibited.

2.6. Safety and supervision during combat activity
2.6.1. Starting and ending scenarios

Supervisors will start and end every scenario with signals demonstrated to the combatants before the start of combat activity.

2.6.2. The “Hold” -rule
The purpose of the hold -rule is to prevent or stop life or injury threatening situations during combat activity. If any combatant or supervisor notices a situation like this, they must shout the word “Hold!” and follow the procedure described below.
The hold command immediately stops all combat activity. If a combatant hears the hold command, they must immediately stop moving, repeat the command and kneel to the ground. Any dead combatants as described in chapter 2.3.2. Dying and being dead may leave the area of combat activity at this time, if they are in no immediate danger. Non-dead combatants must not move.
Combat activity will continue only after the supervisors have dealt with the dangerous situation. The supervisors will announce the continuation of combat activity with the command “Jatkuu!”. Combatants must repeat the command before resuming combat activity. Supervisors may use signals demonstrated to the combatants before the start of combat activity for the hold and jatkuu commands.

Use of the hold command with any other than the described manner is absolutely prohibited.

2.6.3. Injuries and casualties
Combatants must avoid fighting near injured people. Injured people must be aided to the first aid station regardless of ongoing combat activity.

2.6.4. Duties of supervisors and supervision of rules
Supervisors are responsible for the safety of combat activity. Supervisor may stop a scenario, if the safety of combatants requires it. Supervisor may give warnings to combatants for excessive use of force or dangerous behavior and remove a repeat offender from the scenario or in an extreme case the whole event. Signifiers of the supervisors will be shown to the combatants at the start of the event.

3. Weapons and weapon combinations
3.1. General rules concerning weapons
3.1.1. Weapon inspection

All weapons used in the event must be inspected by certified inspectors. Inspected weapons must be marked in a noticeable manner. Inspectors may ban dangerous weapons from the event even if it fulfills the requirements set for its type. The head inspector chosen by the organisers has the final say in matters concerning weapons. Organisers of the event may ban or allow weapons and weapon types for the lack or existence of historical examples or for their applicability or the lack of applicability to the event.

3.1.2. Damaged weapons
Use of damaged weapons is prohibited. Continuing the use of weapons damaged during scenarios is prohibited. Weapons must be inspected again after any repairs done during the event.

3.1.3. Weapon typology
All weapons fall into following categories: melee weapons, ranged weapons and siege engines. Each category has its own rules for function, safety and structure.

3.1.4. Material concepts concerning weapons
Weapon rules describe weapon structure based on the strength of cellular plastic and foam plastic. Other types of padding may be used instead if a similar protective quality can be achieved with them.

3.2. Melee weapons
3.2.1. Use and general rules concerning melee weapons
Melee weapon is defined as a hitting, thrusting or hit-thrust combination weapon used with one or two hands. Acceptable melee weapons must have a historical example. Staves and small throwing weapons like daggers or throwing stars are banned.

Minimum length of melee weapons is 40 cm.

Non-damaging parts of the weapon that might still accidentally hit the target must be padded with cellular plastic at least 15 mm thick. Thrusting point of a melee weapon must be built by plugging the shaft, adding 21 mm of cellular plastic padding and a piece of foam plastic padding described for each weapon type separately. The other end of the shaft must be padded with 14 mm of cellular plastic unless otherwise specified.
If the inspector can feel the pipe through the thrusting point padding, the weapon won’t pass the inspection. The padding must not bend away from the impact in a thrust. Thrusting point padding must be taped over with duct tape and it must remain soft and return to its form after a thrust.

Latex weapons are banned.

3.2.2. Spears
Spear is a thrusting weapon. Spear shaft must be springy as it must bend in a way that dampens the impact of a thrust, but it must not bend enough to enable bending attacks behind shields. Thrusting point padding of a spear must have a foam plastic padding at least 150 mm thick and wide enough to stop it from bending away from the impact of a thrust. The shaft of a spear must be padded with a layer of cellular foam at least 15 mm thick at everywhere other than the handle. The spear can have at most 175 cm long handle. There must be at least 50 cm long part of padded shaft below the thrusting point.

Spear shaft may be made out of pvc pipe 50 mm of external diameter, two thinner pvc pipes one glued inside the other, glass fibre pipe 20 mm of external diameter or, if the length of the spear exceeds 3 metres, glass fibre pipe 26 mm of external diameter. Glass fiber pipes must be plugged very carefully from both ends and taped across the whole length. Metal pipe can be used as a joint in two-part spears exceeding 4 metres in length. The joint must be located at the spear user’s side of the shaft. Metal pipe must be light and no more than 60 cm of length. Spears containing metal must be inspected by the head inspector.

Experimental materials: Bamboo of thickness between 20 and 40 mm can be used as spear shafts and must be inspected by the head inspector. Glass fiber pipe 30 mm of external diameter can be used as a shaft in spears exceeding 4 metres in length. All spears using this pipe must be inspected by the head inspector.

3.2.3. Chain weapons
Chain weapon is a hitting weapon. Chain weapon is defined as a weapon containing a bending joint. Chain weapons are used with one hand and must not exceed 1 metre in combined length. The chain must not exceed 20 cm in length, must be padded with cellular foam and must not cause danger of strangulation. The hitting part of the weapon must not contain objects sharper or heavier than a floorball.

3.2.4. Axes and maces
Axes and maces are hitting weapons. The shaft and the damaging part must be clearly defined. Shaft must not be used for hitting and won’t be counted as a hit. The tip, the damaging part and the parts near the damaging part must be padded with at least 50 mm of foam plastic or 30 mm of cellular plastic. The foam plastic padding of the thrusting point must be at least 8 cm thick (in addition to the cellular foam) in weapons of less than 110 cm of length and at least 12 cm in weapons exceeding 110 cm in length. If an axe is not meant for thrusting, mere 30 mm cellular plastic padding at the tip will be enough instead of the thrusting point padding. At least half of the shaft of the weapon must be padded with at least 15 mm of cellular plastic. Weapons exceeding 180 cm of length are polearms.

3.2.5. Swords
Sword is a hit-thrust combination weapon. Shaft material must be pvc or pp plastic. Other shaft materials must be inspected by the head inspector and a sample piece of the material must be provided for inspection. Glass fibre, metals and wood are not acceptable shaft materials.

The damaging part of a sword starts from and includes the thrusting point and is located at the both sides of the weapon. Swords under 110 cm of length must have a damaging part at least half the legth of the weapon and the backside of the weapon must have a damaging part at least quarter the length of the weapon. Swords over 110 cm of length must have damaging part at least half the length of the weapon at both sides of the weapon. Damaging part of the weapon must have 15 mm of cellular foam padding in addition to the padding of the shaft. The padding of the damaging part must be at least 30 mm wide in swords less than 110 cm of length and at least 40 mm wide in weapons over 110 cm of length. Swords aren’t allowed to exceed 180 cm of length.

Shaft of a sword less than 110 cm of length must be at least 25 mm of width and shaft of a sword over 110 cm of length must be at least 32 mm of width. Shaft can be bent but the damaging part may not be bent forward. No hooks or spikes are allowed. The shaft may be flattened into oval shape only at the handle.

Sword must have a foam plastic thrusting point. Thrusting point of a sword less than 110 of length must be at least 8 cm long in addition to the plug. Thrusting point of a sword over 110 of length must be at least 12 cm long in addition to the plug. Ends of the crossguard must be padded with at least 7 mm of cellular foam. Shortening the thrusting point may not be a condition for passing the inspection.

The guard of a sword may be basket-shaped to protect the hand. This type of guard must be stiff and rigid. Guard or hilt may not may not have sharp or dangerous parts. Hilt of a sword may not be longer than a third of the length of the sword. If a sword includes weights, the must be located at the hilt.

Swords can be used while gripping the blade with the other hand.

Daggers are banned. Short swords are used instead and they fall under the rules concerning swords.

3.2.6. Polearms
Polearm is a hitting or hit-thrust combination weapon. Polearms must be less than or exactly 230 cm of length. Shaft of a polearm must bend in a manner that dampens the impact of a hit but not enough for bending attacks behind defensive equipment to become possible. Polearm must be as light as possible within these rules.

Thrusting point padding of a polearm must have at least 150 mm of foam plastic and must be wide enough to stop the padding from bending away from a thrust. Damaging part of a polearm must have either at least 75 mm of foam plastic and at least 15 mm of cellular foam padding or at least 50 mm of foam plastic and at least 45 mm of cellular plastic padding. Foam plastic padding may be covered with stiffer padding if it doesn’t have sharp or dangerous parts. Shaft of a polearm must be padded with 15 mm of cellular plastic everywhere except the handle. Shaft must be padded for at least 50 cm below the damaging part.

Damaging parts of a polearm must be taped to be different color than non-damaging parts. If the damaging part connects to the thrusting point this must be made apparent with the taping.

Shaft material of polearms under 180 cm of length must be pvc pipe 40 mm of external diameter. Shaft material of polearms over 180 cm of length must be pvc pipe 50 mm of external diameter or other type of pipe one pipe glued inside the other and plugged at the ends or glass fibre pipe 20 mm of external diameter or bamboo between 20 and 40 mm of external diameter. Glass fibre pipe must be carefully plugged from both ends and taped along the whole length of the pipe. If bamboo is the external pipe, it must be taped along the whole length of the pipe. Bamboo may also be used to reinforce other pipes as an internal pipe. All weapons containing bamboo must be inspected by the head inspector.

3.3. Ranged weapons
Ranged weapons include all weapons damaging part of which is not held by the attacker when it hits the target when used correctly. Throwing weapons include all weapons that are propelled with the strength of the attacker’s arm and the attack method of which is thus throwing. Other ranged weapons include both the weapon exacting force upon the projectile and the propelled projectile itself. Attack method of these weapons is launching.

Projectile weapons include all bows and arrows, crossbows and bolts, javelins and other throwing weapons.

3.3.1. Use of ranged weapons
All ranged weapons described below will be accepted for use in Sotahuuto event. Inspected ranged weapon and its projectiles can only be used by one person in a scenario. Combatant in possession of projectiles at the start of a scenario must be the one who uses them. All combatants may move used projectiles out of way or to designated projectile retrieval areas. Hiding of projectiles is prohibited.

Projectiles can only be used once per scenario. User of a ranged weapon must inspect their weapon and projectiles between scenarios for wear and damage. Any ranged weapon or projectile that has been repaired between scenarios must be inspected by a certified ranged weapon inspector.

Use of force must be carefully regulated in attacks performed with ranged weapons. Full force of a ranged weapon must not be released against targets at a distance closer than five meters. Making the projectiles bounce backwards from surfaces is to be avoided.

Hitting arrows, bolts, javelins or other ranged weapons with weapons, shields of other equipment while in flight is prohibited.

3.3.2. Throwing weapons
Throwing weapon must be completely padded. It may not have sharp or dangerous parts or shapes. Throwing weapons must be light enough not to cause real damage to people when thrown. Throwing weapon must be large enough to be noticeable. Throwing stars and knives are especially banned.

If a throwing weapon has a rigid shaft, it must pass the requirements of a melee weapon type it best fits in. It may then be used as both melee and throwing weapon. Throwing weapon without a rigid shaft may be used as a melee weapon at the discretion of a certified inspector. Cellular foam 13 mm of thickness may be used as padding for javelins, but the javelin may then not be used as a melee weapon.

Minimum length of a javelin is one meter.

3.3.3. Bows
Bows are ranged weapons used for launching arrows which carry the damaging part of the weapon. Bow by itself will not cause damage and may not be used as any kind of weapon without inspected arrows. Strength of the bow is defined as being the weight required to draw the bow to the length of the arrow used with the bow. Maximum allowed strength of bows is 25 pounds (11,34kg).

Maximum allowed strength of bows used with IDV arrows is 20 pounds.

3.3.4. Crossbows
Crossbows are ranged weapons used for launching bolts that carry the damaging part of the weapon. Crossbow by itself won’t cause damage and may not be used as any type of weapon without inspected bolts. Strength of a crossbow is defined in poundcentimetres as follows:

Strength required to load the crossbow in pounds
times
the draw-length of the crossbow when loaded in centimetres.

Maximum allowed strength of crossbows is 1500 lbcm

Stock of the crossbow must be at least 60 cm long.

3.3.5. Arrows and bolts
Arrows and bolts may be used as projectiles of appropriate weapons. The tip of the projectile is its damaging part and the attack type is to be considered a thrust. Bouncing attacks won’t cause damage. Projectile must be front-heavy and follow a predictable trajectory. Projectile may be tested by shooting its user with it if necessary.

Tip of the projectile must be constructed without adding any sharp points. The shaft must end in a blunt plug that won’t pierce the padding under any circumstances. The tip must have at least 50 mm of foam plastic and 20 mm of cellular plastic padding. The diameter of the tip must be at least 50 mm wide and must not fit into a human eye socket. The tip must not include any sharp or dangerous parts and any tape used must not come into contact with the impact surface when the tip is compressed. The padding must not bend sideways when compressed.

The whole length of the shaft of the projectile must be taped, if the projectile is made out of splintering material. The taping must stop the splintering if the shaft snaps. Projectiles must be marked below the tip with the color code of the group. Personal markings may be placed below that. Projectiles must be fletched with at least two fletchings but three is the recommended amount. The opposite end of the tip must have a nock guard that consists of a rubber plug and a strip of cellular plastic.

3.4. Siege engines
Siege engines are inspected in a case by case basis. Siege engines must be announced to the organisers before the start of the event and the siege engine must be inspected in good time a day before the scenarios start. All siege engines must be accepted by the main organiser or an authorized replacement. Siege engine must be designed so that the launch force can be adjusted during the event. Admission of a siege engine to the event requires deeming the engine, its projectiles and its crew safe enough to the Sotahuuto event.

Being hit by a projectile from a siege engine to any part of a combatant or their equipment means instant death regardless of armor or other protection.

Rules regarding siege engines must be announced to combatants at the start of the event.

4 Defensive equipment
4.1. Defining defensive equipment

Defensive equipment includes all equipment that weakens or prevents hits as described in chapter 2.3. Wounds and dying.

4.1.1. Inspection of defensive equipment
All defensive equipment used in the event must be inspected by specifically nominated inspectors before use. Inspectors may ban dangerous defensive equipment even if it fulfills the requirements. The head inspector nominated by the main organiser has the final say in matters regarding inspection of defensive equipment.

4.2. Shields
Use of shields as defensive equipment is allowed. Use of shield is described in chapter 2.4. Defence.

The front side of the shield must be padded with at least 8 mm of cellular plastic and covered with tape or cloth. Edge of the shield must be padded with rubber and at least 15 mm of cellular foam on it. Shield mustn’t include sharp or dangerous parts.

4.3. Armor
4.3.1. General rules concerning armor.

Armor protects from hits and death as described in chapter 2.4. Defence. Armor must be made with materials and methods that fit the historical theme of Sotahuuto event. Users of questionable armor are recommended to contact the organisers before the event. Use of materials that don’t fit the theme is allowed if the use is minor and is limited to joining other parts together or if the armor parts made out of materials that don’t fit the theme look and weigh the same and are as durable as armor made out of materials that fit the theme. Armor may not be unnecessarily sharp or angular. All edges and angles must be smoothed. Armor must not injure its user or others.

4.3.2. Rules concerning armor types
Armor types acceptable in the theme of Sotahuuto event are chainmail, leather, plate and cloth armor. Helmets have separate rules.

Chainmail is armor made out of butted or riveted linked chain links. Links must be made of metal wire of at least 1,0 mm of thickness. The thickness of wire used in European 4-1 pattern chainmail must be at least 4/25 of the inner diameter of the links. Chainmail made with other patterns must be of equal or greater density and durability.

Leather armor is armor made out of leather. Leather armor must be made out of at least 3 mm of rigid hardened or boiled leather or at least 6 mm of soft layered or unlayered leather. Hardened leather must retain its form without support and resist bending.

Plate mail is made out of metal. A plate of shaped or layered metal must be at least 1 mm thick.

Cloth armor is a padded armor made out of natural fabric. Inner padding may be other natural materials than cloth. Different layers of cloth armor must be stitched together into segments of proper size. Armor made of layered cloth must be at least 10 mm thick. Armor made of padded cloth must be at least 15 mm thick.

Armors made by joining bits of leather or metal together by attaching them to a base of same or different material must be at least 1,5 times as thick as solid armor of the same material. The material thickness requirements are thus as follows:

Plate armor – 1,5 mm (solid 1,0 mm)
Hardened leather – 4,5 mm (solid 3 mm)
Soft leather – 9 mm (solid 6 mm)

Armor having gaps larger than necessary between its parts is counted as being this type of armor. Gaps between parts can only cover a quarter of the surface of the whole armor.

4.3.3. Helmets
Helmet must fulfill the requirements for a type of armor or protect its user’s head from repeated impacts without losing its integrity. This type of helmet may be made of materials that don’t fit the theme of the event. A supporting padding structure must separate the hard helmet material from the head of its user. This structure may be a separate or integral part of the helmet. Helmet must not have extending parts that can get tangled into things and cause danger to its user and others. The chinstrap of a helmet may not cause a danger of strangulation. Helmets made of non-historical materials must be covered with paint, cloth or other appropriate manner. Protective goggles approved by the organisers will protect the user like other armor.

5. Rules concerning other equipment
5.1. Communication tools

Organisers may allow or ban any type of communication tool based on the existence or lack of historical examples or the applicability to the event. Use of any electronic devices to effect the outcome of scenarios is prohibited. All communication tools must be inspected by a specially nominated inspector. Inspected communication tools must be marked in noticeable manner. Inspectors may ban dangerous communication tools. The head inspector has the final say in matters concerning communication tools.